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TS 
1094 
D91p 
1881 



PHE 



PRACTICAL 
APER MAKER 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 



THE 



PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER: 



MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 



SECOND EDITION. 



BY JAMES DUNBAR. 



LEITH : REID <fe SON, 35 SHORE. 

LONDON : E. & F. N. SPON, 16 CHARING CROSS. 

NEW YORK : E. & F. N. SPON, 446 BROOME STREET. 

MDCCCLXXXI. 



REID AND SON, PRINTERS, LE1TH. 



IW 

PREFACE. 



IN adding another to the many books on Paper- 
making which already exist, it is my aim to supply 
a deficiency in these publications which has long 
been felt by those engaged in the trade, and more 
especially by the workmen. 

I have endeavoured, in the execution of this task, 
to convey some useful information on the manu- 
facture of paper, derived from an experience, both 
in home and continental mills, of twenty years; and 
what measure of success I have attained, I leave to 
my readers to judge. 

Some of the suggestions I have made may not be 
found suitable in all mills ; but of this I am certain, 
that there is not one maker who will not find some 
hint to an improvement on his present mode of 
working. 

1267585 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

ALUM . . . 61 

ALTTMINOUS CAKES 62 

ANTICHLORINB 52 

BEATING ENGINE 28 

BERLIN BLUE 51 

BLEACHING POWDER 63 

BLEACH TEST . . ..'... . . 53 

CATECHU, PREPARATION OF 50 

CAUSTIC SODA, BOILING WITH 18 

CLEANLINESS AND ORDER 48 

COCHINEAL, PREPARATION OF 53 

COLOURS, ANILINE 56 

DRAINING AND PRESSING 25 

EDGES, How TO MAKE ...... 47 

ESPARTO BOILING 19 

FINISHING 49 

FIRST PRESS ROLLS 47 

GAS BLEACHING 25 

GELATINE, PREPARATION OF 55 

LIME AND SODA ASH, PREPARATION OF . . . 17 

MACHINE 44 



VU1 INDEX. 

PAGE 

PAPER, BLOTTING 71 

Do. COLOURED 30 

Do. COLOUKED TEST 68 

Do. ESPARTO, COLOURED 42 

Do. WRITINGS, ETC 20 

PERNAMBUCO DYEWOOD 51 

POTCHING 27 

RAGS, BOILING . . 14 

Do. CLASSIFICATION OF 13 

Do. SELECTION AND ASSORTMENT OF ... .9 

SIZE, ENGINE FRENCH METHOD .... 53 

Do. Do. PBEPARATION OF . . . 54 

Do. PREPARATION OF GELATINE FOE ... 55 

Do. SOAP . . . . . ' . . . 54 

Do. TUB -. ' . 55 

Do. TURPENTINE 54 

SODA, EXAMINATION AS TO ITS CAUSTICITY . . 64 

TEST PAPERS, USE OF 70 

ULTRAMARINE 59 

WASHING AND BREAKING . . . , . 23 

WIRE, THE 45 

WOOD PULP, EXPERIMENT WITH .... 72 



THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 



Selection and Assortment of Eags. 

THE selection and assortment of the raw material 
form a very important branch of the Paper Trade. 

Rags are brought to the mill in an unsorted con- 
dition, and are called Mixed Rags. 

The system of assorting and classifying rags in 
common use in this country, and the distinguishing 
mark given to each sort, cause considerable con- 
fusion to the tyro in the trade, and rather retard 
than facilitate the work of this department, which 
ought to be conducted on principles readily com- 
prehended and easily impressed upon the memory. 

The superiority of the system in vogue on the 
Continent its greater simplicity, and therefore effi- 
cacy, and the great saving of time (a most im- 
portant item in the economical working of a factory) 
effected by it will be shown in the following 
description. 

The Rag department in Continental mills consists 
of a two-storey building, on the ground floor of 
which all the cutting and sorting is done. The 
upper storey is fitted up with twenty stalls or com- 



10 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

partments, numbered from 1 to 20. The rags, 
having been cut and overhauled, are hoisted to the 
second flat, and there deposited, under the superin- 
tendence of the foreman, according to their respec- 
tive qualities in the numbered compartments, and 
thence taken to the willows in quantities of the 
various sorts, to make up the desired stuffs ordered 
by the manager. 

The rags are known by number as follows : 

No. 1 Rags White linen without seams, fine clean, 
,, 2 ,, White linen with seams, fine clean, 
,, 3 ,, White linen with seams, second quality, 
,, 4 ,, White linen with seams, third quality, ' 

The three last-mentioned qualities are easily dis- 
tinguished*, for as the quality deteriorates the rags 
become thicker, and, the thicker the rags, the greater 
the quantity of sheive they contain. 

No. 5 Rags Blue linen without seams, first quality, 
,, 6 ,, Blue linen with seams, second quality, 
,, 7 ,, Blue linen with seams, third quality, 
,, 8 ,, Good linen, seconds, 
9 ,, Coarse linen, seconds, 

10 ,, White cotton, fine, first quality, 

11 , White cotton, second quality, 



Coloured cotton, third qiiality, 
Sailcloth without seams, first quality, 
Sailcloth with seams, second quality, 
Fine hemp bagging, good clean, 
Good hemp bagging, 
Hemp rope, fine clean, 
Hemp rope, good clean, 



19 ,, Hemp rope, free from tar, third quality, 

20 ,, Broke from all the above except the rope. 



SELECTION AND ASSORTMENT OF RAGS. 11 

The simplicity and efficiency of sorting the different 
rags by this method of numbers are evident; the 
workpeople having only to know that the higher 
the number is, the coarser the quality of the rags 
becomes. No. 1 is the equivalent for S.P.F.F.F. 

Blending or arranging the rags for the different 
stuffs suitable for the various qualities of paper to 
be made is a work of considerable difficulty, and re- 
quires the greatest care. For example, a paper of a 
certain quality is desired : the difficulty is to blend 
that proportion, of cotton with linen rags which will 
produce a paper, tough, strong, well-sized, and pos- 
sessing those elastic qualities which will permit it to 
be folded into any shape without showing signs of 
cracking, as is especially necessary in book papers. 

The most convenient, and at the same time most 
efficacious, mode of procedure is to form the various 
rags into stuffs, such as No. 1 Stuff, No. 3 Stuff, No. 
4 Stuff, No. 5 Stuff, and stuff specially prepared for 
tissue and copying papers, composed as follows : 

No. 1 STUFF. 

No. 2 Rags, . . 1200 Ib. 
5 ,. . . 2800 



4000 Ib. 
No. 3 STUFF. 

No. 4 Rags, . . 400 Ib. 

6 . 1200 

8 . . 2400 



4000 Ib. 

The above No. 1 and No. 3 Stuffs are for specially 
strong papers. 



12 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

No. 4 STUFF. 

No. 7 Rags, . . 1600 Ib. 

9 . . 2800 

20 Broke, . . 400 



4800 Ib. 

If the broke accumulates, a larger proportion can 
be used in making coloured papers, otherwise the 
above quantity is sufficient. Rags Nos. 10, 11, and 
1 2 are specially reserved for blending, for thick 
papers, or for printings of a high class. Nos. 13, 
14, 15, and 1 6 supply the place of any of the numbers 
for which they are suited. No. 1 can be drawn 
upon in the event of a special paper being desired. 

No. 5 STUFF. 

No. 6 Rags, . . 1600 Ib. 
8 2400 



4000 Ib. 

This No. 5 Stuff is principally used for mixing 
with the Rope Stuff for tissue and copying papers, 
in proportions which will be given in the receipts 
for thin papers. 

ROPE STUFF. 

No. 17 Ropes, . . 2600 Ib. 
18 . 1200 
, 19 , 200 ,, 



4000 Ib. 

It may be mentioned that the qualities of paper 
on the Continent are known by numbers, No. 1 
being the highest quality of writings and printings. 
The different qualities of paper that can be made 
from the various stuffs are as follows : 



CLASSIFICATION OP HOME AND FOREIGN RAGS. 13 

From No. 1 Stuff, extra superfine or No. 1 papers, 
,, 3 ,, superfine and fine papers, 
,, 4 ,, fines, fourths, and coloured papers, 
,, 5 ,, tliin papers ; also used for mixing with the 
rope stuff, for cigarette, copying, and 
tissue papers. 



Classification of Home and Foreign Rags 

According to the Method generally adopted in this 
Country, with their Distinguishing Names. 

Superfines, S.P.F.F.F., S.P.F.F., S.P.F., Dark 
Fines, Grey or Green Linen, New Pieces, Sail- 
cloth, F.F., L.F.X., C.L.F.X., C.C.L.F.X., Fines, 
Seconds, Thirds, Cords both dark and light, Out- 
ghots, Prints, and the various qualities of Hemp 
and Jute Bagging. 

Superfines consist of superfine new white shirt cuttings, 
S.P.F.F.F. ,, extra superfine white linen, first quality, 
S. P. F. F. , , superfine white linen, second quality, 
S.P.F. ,, fine white linen, third quality, 

Dark Fines ,, fine white cotton rags, well adapted for 

blotting paper of a good quality, 
Green Linen ,, fine unbleached linen cuttings, 
New Pieces ,, fine bleached linen cuttings, 
Sailcloth , canvas (worn) and new cuttings, 



F.F. 
L.F.X. 
C.L.F.X. 
C.C.L.F.X. 



coarse Eussian linen rags, first quality, 
coarse Eussian linen rags, second quality, 
coarse Eussian linen rags, third quality, 
coarse Eussian linen rags, fourth quality, 



The last four sorts of rags are easily distinguished, as 
there is considerable difference in the quality and appear- 
ance, the rags being thicker and sheivier as the quality 
deteriorates. 



14 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

Fines consist of fine white cottons, 

Seconds ,, soiled white cottons, 

Thirds ,, extra dirty cotton linings, 

Light and Dark Cords consist of light and dark cottons (thick), 

Outshots consist of good, strong, and sound rags, 

Prints ,, cotton of various grades. 

Home linen rags are often mixed with jute and 
cotton. When jute is present in linen, the colour 
is not so good when manufactured. The simplest 
method of discovering the presence of jute in linen 
is to wash a sample, and treat with diluted chlorine, 
when the jute will assume a red colour, and the 
linen bleach white. With cotton in linen, destroy 
the cotton with sulphuric acid, and only the linen 
will remain. 



Methods of Rag Boiling. 

Description of Boilers Steam Pressure Quantities 
of Lime, Soda Ash, Caustic Soda, and Time of 



Boiling the raw material is the most important 
part in the manufacture of paper. Any neglect in 
this department cannot be remedied after the mate- 
rial has left the boilers ; hence the necessity for the 
exercise of the greatest care and most unremitting 
attention at all times. 

The foreman ought to have a thorough knowledge 
of the nature of the raw material. It is not merely 
sufficient to know that the material is either cotton 
or linen, but it is absolutely necessary to know how 



THE VARIOUS METHODS OF BAG BOILING. 15 

to bring that material to the highest state of per- 
fection without injury to its texture, and with a 
proper regard to the cost. Much, of course, depends 
upon the facilities for boiling, and the quality of the 
water, whether soft or hard. These things must be 
taken into consideration, and arrangements made 
accordingly. 

All rags, even the finest cotton, contain sheive, 
which nothing but judicious boiling will remove. 
Badly boiled stuff also consumes too much chlorine, 
and makes a poorer-looking paper than when pro- 
perly treated in this department. Great waste of 
chemicals ensues when proper care is not exercised ; 
and more especially is this the case with esparto, one 
lot boiling with two to three pounds less caustic soda 
to the cwt. than others. Again, there is considerable 
difference in boiling summer and winter esparto. 
The summer requires more boiling than the winter, 
and turns out better, a fact attributable to the 
smaller amount of moisture contained in the 
former. 

Those in charge here should be thoroughly ac- 
quainted with these facts, and should see that every- 
thing is in its proper place and in proper condition, 
and that there is no leakage at the boiler doors, 
steam joints, or valves. When everything is in good 
order, and strict attention paid to cleanliness, this 
department wears an aspect of serenity and com- 
fort, never seen but where method is followed and 
care exercised. 



16 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

Continental System of Boiling. 

Rags on the Continent are boiled with lime and 
soda ash in a very satisfactory and economical 
manner, as follows : 

No. 1 STUFF. 



boiled for 12 hours with 30 Ib. steam pressure in 
a boiler revolving horizontally. 

Nos. 3 AND 5 STUFFS. 

Lime . . 324 Ib. \ , 

Soda Ash* 152 } ^ 4000 Ib. rags, 

boiled for 12 hours with 30 Ib. steam pressure in 
a boiler revolving horizontally. 

No. 4 STUFF. 

Lime . . 378 Ib. \ , 

Soda Ash* 190,, jfor 4800 Ib. rags, 

boiled for 12 hours with 30 Ib. steam pressure in 
a boiler revolving horizontally. 



Boiling of Ropes for Tissue, Copying, and 
Cigarette Papers. 



Lime . . 648 Ib. 
Soda Ash* 456 



lb> } for 4000 Ib. rope, 



boiled for 24 hours with 30 Ib. steam pressure in 
a boiler revolving horizontally. 

* 48 per ceo . 



PREPARATION OF LIME AND SODA ASH. 17 

Preparation of Lime and Soda Ash. 

Milk of Lime is prepared and strained in the 
following manner : Construct a large wooden box 
of 15 ft. long, 5 ft. wide, and 4 ft. deep, divided 
into three compartments, with false bottoms, per- 
forated with ^-inch holes to retain small stones and 
sand. In the first compartment the lime is slaked 
and reduced to a powder ; it is then put over into 
the second compartment, and converted into Milk 
of Lime. In the partition between the second and 
third compartments there is a moveable sluice, allow- 
ing the milk to flow into the third division in 
quantities regulated by the man in charge. In the 
third compartment there is fitted a revolving drum, 
exactly the same as the ordinary drum washer of a 
half-stuff engine. The milk of lime flowing through 
the sluice is strained by the revolving drum, on the 
same principle as that by which the water is lifted 
from a breaking engine, and is discharged through 
a pipe direct into the rag boilers. If the lime re- 
quires extra straining, a fine wire strainer can be 
put over the mouth of the pipe leading to the boiler, 
and the lime passed through it. The several com- 
partments are furnished with large waste pipes, 
which, with a liberal supply of water, carry off all 
impurities and what the drum has rejected. This 
system is a satisfactory and cleanly one. 

Soda Ash. 

The preparation of Soda Ash is conducted in very 
different ways. Some introduce it into the newly- 



18 



THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 



slaked lime while the excessive heat lasts which is 
generated by the slaking ; others, again, put the soda 
ash direct into the boiler. The latter should never 
be done on any pretext whatever. Nothing should 
be put into the boiler without straining. The best 
method is to dissolve the soda ash separately, and 
strain through a fine wire strainer into the boiler. 

By adopting the above principles, the boiling 
department is kept orderly and clean, a most im- 
portant object in the manufacture of paper, than 
which no manufactured goods are more liable to 
damage from carelessness and dirty habits. 

Boiling with Caustic Soda. 

Boiling with lime alone is a much better and safer 
method than any other for fine-textured materials. 
The rags certainly turn out better, and it is there- 
fore more economical. 

The quantities of caustic soda for the cwt. of the 
various qualities of rags are as follows : 

S.P.F.F.F. is boiled with lime alone, then washed in the 

boiler, and again boiled with 2 per cent, of soda ash. 
S.P.F.F. is boiled with 12 Ib. of caustic soda* per cwt 
S.P.F. 14 



KblmJB* 

Fines 




i* 

7 








Seconds 




6 








L.F.X. 




20 








C.L.F.X. 




27 








C.C.L.F.X. 


30 








F.F. 


15 








all boiled with steam at a pressure of 20 to 25 Ib. for 


* 70 per cent, 



BOILING ESPARTO. 



19 



10 hours in stationary boilers without vomit, and 
also in boilers revolving horizontally. 

Boiling Esparto. 

Great care and attention are required in boiling 
this material, as when esparto is insufficiently boiled, 
and a repetition of the operation found necessary, 
a great waste of soda is caused, and in the end the 
material does not turn out so satisfactorily. 

When a consignment of esparto is received at the 
mill, the smallest quantity of caustic soda necessary 
to boil it properly should be at once ascertained, 
and that quantity continued throughout until the 
parcel is finished. 

When the necessary precautions are taken to have 
everything in proper order and condition, the under- 
noted quantities of caustic soda will generally boil 
the various espartos in a satisfactory manner : 

Fine Spanish Esparto, boiled with 28 Ib. caustic soda* per cwt. 

Medium Spanish Esparto 

Pine Oran Esparto 

Medium Oran Esparto 

Fine Susa Esparto 

Tripoli Esparto 

Tunis Esparto 

all boiled for 10 hours 
boilers with 10 Ib. steam pressure, care being taken 
to see that the esparto is sufficiently boiled before 
the liquor is run off. 

To acquire the very desirable knowledge of boiling 
raw materials, considerable time and close applica- 

* 70 per cent, 



24, 

30, 
28, 
28, 
32, 
25, 

stationary vomiting 



20 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

tion must be given by the young paper-maker, and 
a thorough, acquaintance with all its details (none 
are of such small importance that they can be 
passed over, however insignificant they may appear) 
obtained before he leaves the department. 

Receipts for High-class Papers. 

In making papers of superior quality, considerable 
experience and skill are necessary in selecting and 
blending the material. The following receipts will 
produce papers, smooth, strong, tough, and possess- 
ing elasticity of feel and clearness of colour : 

EXTRA SUPERFINE CREAM. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

S.P.F.F., i; Dark Fines, J; 

Green Linen, | ; New Pieces, J ; 

4 oz. ultramarine, marked B.B.A.C. ; 

1J gill cochineal ; 40 Ib. pearl hardening. 

SUPERFINE CREAM. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Dark Fines, J ; S.P.F., J ; 

Superfmes, | ; Spanish Esparto, Fine, ; 

6 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ; 

1 gill cochineal ; 40 Ib. pearl hardening ; 
14 Ib. dry starch. 

FINE CREAMS. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Medium Spanish Esparto, ; 
Fines, J; F.F., J; 

7 oz. ultramarine, marked B.B.R.V. ; 
l gill cochineal. 



RECEIPTS FOR HIGH-CLASS PAPERS. 21 

EXTRA SUPERFINE COMMERCIAL POST, 

ANIMAL SIZED. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

S.P.F.F.F., }; Dark Fines, J; 

New Pieces, J ; 

3 gallons engine size ; 5 Ib. pure alum ; 

5 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ; 

1 pint cochineal ; J oz. carmine ; 
40 Ib. pearl hardening. 

SUPERFINE COMMERCIAL POST, ANIMAL SIZED. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

S.P.F.F., J ; Dark Fines, ; Supers, \ ; 
3 gallons engine size ; 6 Ib. pure alum ; 

6 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ; 

1 J gill cochineal ; 1 gill archil ; 

14 Ib. starch ; 40 Ib. pearl hardening. 

FINE CREAM COMMERCIAL POST, ANIMAL SIZED. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

F.F. Russian Rags, J ; Seconds, \ ; 
No. 2 Spanish Esparto, J ; 
6 oz. ultramarine, B.B.R.V. ; 1 gill magenta ; 
Ions size ; 10 Ib. alum. 



FOURTH CREAMS. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Second Fines, \ ; F.F., \ ; 
No. 2 Spanish Esparto, J ; 
6 pails size ; 30 Ib. alum ; 
9 oz. ultramarine, B.B.R.V. ; 2 gills archil. 

FOURTH CREAMS. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 
Fine Oran Esparto, \ ; 
Tunis Esparto, \ ; F.F. Rags, ; 
9 oz. ultramarine, B.B.R.V. ; 
2 gills magenta ; 4 Ib. dry starch. 



22 THE PRACTICAL PAPEEMAKEB. 

SUPERIOR QUALITY OF DRAWING CARTRIDGE. 

NO COLOURING MATTER. 

Cartridge, ; good Canvas, 5 good Seconds, | ; 
EXTRA SUPERFINE POST PAPER. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Supers, ; Green Linen, \ ; 
New Pieces, \ ; S.P.F.F.F., \ ; 
3 oz. ultramarine, A. C. ; 2 oz. carmine. 
(The above is the highest class of post paper made. ) 

EXTRA SUPERFINE BLUE, HIGH COLOUR. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

S.P.F., i; Dark Fines, J; 
Fine Spanish Esparto, J ; 
9 Jib. ultramarine, B.B.R.V. ; 
\ Ib. magenta lake. 

CARD PAPER, SUPERFINE, ANIMAL SIZED. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

S.P.F., \ ; Fines, 4 ; Seconds, \ ; 

3 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ; 

1 gill archil ; 30 Ib. pearl hardening. 

DRAWING CARTRIDGE, SUPERFINE, ANIMAL SIZED. 

NO COLOURING MATTER, AND NO CLAY. 

Cartridge, J ; Sailcloth without seams, | ; Seconds, . 
(This is a superior cartridge. ) 

DRAWING CARTRIDGE, SECOND QUALITY, 

ANIMAL SIZED. 

F.F., i ; Thirds, 4 ; No. 2 Spanish Esparto, J ; 
4 Ib. starch ; 20 Ib. pearl hardening. 



WASHING AND BREAKING. 23 

SUPERFINE CREAM ENVELOPE PAPER, 
ANIMAL SIZED. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

S.P.F., * ; Seconds, ; New Pieces, J ; 
3 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ; 
l pint cochineal ; 12 Ib. starch. 

SUPERFINE HIGH BLUE. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 
S.P.F., \ ; Medium Spanish Esparto, J ; 
Scotch Fines, J ; 
12 Ib. ultramarine, marked A ; 
| Ib. magenta lake. 

FINE HIGH BLUE. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

F.F., $ ; Fine Oran Esparto, J ; 

8 Ib. ultramarine, marked B.B.R.V. ; 

J Ib. magenta lake. 

Washing and Breaking. 

Considerable experience and great care are required 
in reducing rags to half- stuff. If more attention 
were given to the first stages in the manufacture of 
paper, the subsequent duties of those in charge 
would be less burdensome, and the particular class 
of paper desired produced with comparatively little 
trouble, and a very small percentage of retree. 

The rags should be gradually introduced into an 
engine, previously half filled with water. When 
the desired quantity (which should never be too 
thick and difficult to turn) is filled in, go on wash- 
ing, and let down the roll just sufficient to open up 



24 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

the rags and let the dirt escape, at the same time 
using the stirring stick right above the sand-trap, 
round the sides, and at the back fall of the engine. 
This prevents " lodgers," or pieces of rag not reduced 
to half-stuff, hanging about, which, if allowed to 
escape, would cause knots and grey specks in the 
paper. The rags must on no account be cut up or 
forced, but drawn out into fibre without having the 
smallest particle of rag unreduced to half -stuff ; and 
this can only be accomplished by a liberal use of 
the stirring stick and the valve hook at the back 
fall of the engine. When the stuff is in condition 
for emptying into the drainers, the valve should be 
drawn with care, and deposited on the floor until 
the engine is empty. 

The man in charge of this department should be 
made to understand that the quality of the paper 
depends greatly upon his knowledge of his business 
and the cleanliness of his surroundings. 

Before replacing, the valve must be carefully 
washed, as the hole on the top is always full of dirt 
and sand, which, when the valve is carelessly drawn, 
escapes with the stuff. Next lift the sand-trap 
plate, and remove carefully all impurities, replace 
the plate, and fill up again. Much depends on the 
treatment of the stuff in this department whether 
the paper will possess the requisite strength, for if 
too quickly reduced to half-stuff the material is 
rendered weaker, and the washing is insufficiently 
done ; while, if the stuff is properly drawn out into 
fibre and timed, its texture is not injured, it is 
better washed, and produces a stronger paper. 



DRAINING AND PRESSING. 25 

Draining and Pressing. 

When the stuff is emptied from the washing- 
engine into the drainers, it immediately commences 
to drain, and, when properly drained for removal, is 
subjected to pressure. 

The best method of pressing or extracting the 
water from the stuff is by the extractor or centri- 
fugal drainer, which dries the stuff sufficiently either 
for gasing or conveying to the potcher, as the case 
may be. This department ought to be kept scrupu- 
lously clean, and should be supplied with a box to 
contain any stuff that may accidentally drop on the 
floor and get dirty. All boxes or waggons connected 
with it ought to be periodically washed, and kept 
perfectly clean. The floor ought to be washed once 
a day, and everything kept in its proper place. 
All this is necessary, not only to ensure perfectly 
clean stuff, but also from a sanitary point of view, 
as the workman will find that, where a system of 
cleanliness and order is adopted, the department 
wears a healthier and more cheerful aspect than 
where dirt and disorder are the order of the day. 

Gas Bleaching Half-Stuff. 

Gas-bleaching half-stuff is seldom resorted to in 
this country, but is still carried on in Russia, and is 
almost indispensable for bleaching the coarse linen 
rags so plentiful in that country. 

Half-stuff, to be satisfactorily gas-bleached, must 
contain a sufficient amount of moisture, else the 
c 



26 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

outside only will be bleached, and that even an in- 
different colour. On the other hand, if the stuff is 
too wet, the same results will follow. In order to 
ensure, therefore, a good uniform colour, great care 
must be taken to see that the stuff contains the 
proper amount of moisture, and no more. A 
generally effective method of testing the state of 
the stuff is to squeeze it between the hands, when, 
if the pressure causes no escape of water, yet still 
retains a damp appearance, it is in a proper con- 
dition for gas-bleaching. 

The method of bleaching is as follows : Put 
1600 Ib. of half -stuff, in the condition mentioned 
above, loosely into a stone chamber, and seal it in 
such a manner that it will be perfectly air-tight. 
Into the lead retort, connected with this chamber 
by leaden pipes, pour 3 pails of water and 66 Ib. 
of common salt; stir thoroughly, add 65 Ib. of 
manganese; stir again, and close the retort. Next 
charge a leaden vessel with 119 Ib. of vitriol, and let 
the vitriol drop into the retort containing the water, 
salt, and manganese, through a bell-mouthed bent 
syphon, which admits the vitriol and at the same 
time prevents the escape of gas. (Three hours must 
be allowed for the vitriol to drop into the retort.) 
Then heat the retort with steam for seven hours, 
and allow two hours for the gas to escape up the 
mill chimney. For fine stuff, such as willowed rope, 
one hour extra must be allowed for the escape of 
the gas. 

The quantities of manganese, salt, and vitriol used 
for the different stuffs previously mentioned are 



POTCHING HALF-STUFF. 27 

No. 1 STUFF. 

FOR 1600 LB. HALF-STUFF. 

50 Ib. manganese ; 50 Ib. salt ; 80 Ib. vitriol. 
No. 3 STUFF. 

FOR 1600 LB. HALF-STUFF. 

60 Ib. manganese ; 60 Ib. salt ; 100 Ib. vitriol 
No. 4 STUFF. 

FOR 1600 LB. HALF-STUFF. 

65 Ib. manganese ; 66 Ib. salt ; 119 Ib. vitriol 
ROPES, FOR COPYING PAPER, &c. 

FOR 1400 LB. HALF-STUFF. 

81 Ib. manganese ; 91 Ib. salt ; 124 Ib. vitriol. 

Potching of Half-Stuff previously Gas-Bleached. 

No. 1 STUFF. 

FOR 600 LB. 

15 gallons chlorine at 4^ degrees. 
No. 3 STUFF. 

FOR 600 LB. 

20 gallons chlorine at 4 degrees. 
No. 4 STUFF. 

FOR 500 LB. 

12 gallons chlorine at 5 degrees. 

PotcMng Half-Stuff! 

The quantities of half-stuff filled into the potching 
engine should at all times be as uniform as possible ; 
for if the quantity of stuff is changed and the bleach 



28 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

not varied in proportion, an irregularly -bleached 
stuff will be produced. When the engine is filled, 
wash for some time with a finer wire than is used 
on the breaker. When thoroughly washed, raise 
the washer and introduce the bleaching liquor in 
sufficient quantities for the material to be bleached, 
care being taken not to exceed the quantity ordered 
by the manager, not only as a matter of economy 
in chlorine, but also on account of the injury the 
stuff would suffer. 

In the case of vitriol being used, a small leaden 
vessel must be placed in such a position that the 
vitriol will drop into the engine at the rate of one 
pound of vitriol in twenty minutes. The vitriol 
should be diluted before using, taking care, in order 
to prevent excessive effervescence and a disagreeable 
smell, that the vitriol be added to the water, and 
not the water to the vitriol. When the bleaching 
process is finished, the stuff is emptied into stone 
chests, each capable of containing two engines of ma- 
terial. These chests are fitted with perforated zinc 
drainers one in the extreme bottom, and another 
running up the back of the chest, and connected 
with the one in the bottom. The stuff is generally 
allowed to remain in the chests as long as time will 
permit, but, to ensure a regularly-coloured stuff, it is 
better to allow a fixed time. 

Beating Engine Department. 

This is another very important department in the 
paper mill, and should be roomy, and kept in good 



BEATING ENGINE DEPARTMENT. 29 

order, and perfectly clean. The man in charge 
should be a thoroughly -experienced workman, in 
whom every confidence can be placed, who will not 
add to or take from any order given by the manager 
without previous consultation. 

The journals of the roll shaft should be frequently 
wiped, and no stuff should be allowed to escape at 
the ends of the roll or from below the edge of the 
roll cover, as the continual vibration of the cover 
rubs the stuff, and forms it into small black specks, 
which escape with it and show in the paper. In 
order to ensure a uniform colour, everything must 
be put into the engine in proper order, at the right 
time, and in the exact quantities ordered ; nor should 
anything be put into the engine without being pre- 
viously strained, no matter how clean it may be, as, 
by this system, straining, when actually required, is 
never neglected, for which there can be no excuse. 
Colouring matter should be measured or weighed, 
as the case may be, with the greatest exactness. 
Size and alum should also be carefully measured. 

Whenever the engine is filled, commence washing, 
and continue for some time. In making animal- 
sized papers, a quantity of antichlorine should be in- 
troduced immediately the washing is finished, to 
neutralize the chlorine ; but with engine-sized papers 
the loading should be first introduced, then the size, 
then the alum, and lastly the colouring matter. 
The water bags should never be shaken or squeezed, 
and, when they show any signs of being dirty, should 
be at once changed. The preparation of the stuff 
must be timed according to the thickness of the 



30 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

paper wanted, and, in proportion to the uniformity 
of time used in preparing a lot to be made at a given 
weight, will the regularity in quality and weight run 
at the machine. 

Much depends on the workmen in this department 
whether the pulp is of the desired quality or not. 
A comparatively weak material can be made into 
a reasonably strong paper, if properly treated in the 
beating engine ; but if the stuff is carelessly handled, 
such as by sending out stuff for laid paper too fast 
and long, or too soft and carrying too much water, 
the weight will vary, and the paper crush at the 
couchers and stick at the press rolls, causing all sorts 
of trouble and confusion to the machineman, and 
a considerable amount of waste. 



The following are some receipts for Coloured 
Papers. To ensure the desired shades, the colouring 
matters must be introduced exactly as stated, and 
at the intervals mentioned here. 

COLOURED PAPERS. 

DEEP LILAC. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 
No. 8 Stuff; 5 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum ; 
30 oz. violet methyl, marked B.B.B ; 
i oz. cosine, marked A. 

DEEP GREEK 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 3 Stuff; 5 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum ; 
22 Ib. silk green paste, extra fine. 
(This is a beautiful clear green.) 



COLOURED PAPERS. 31 

DEEP LILAC. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff; 20 Ib. alum ; 4 pails size ; 
8 oz. diamond fuchine ; 3 oz. aniline blue ; 
50 Ib. straw pulp. 

No. 10 PALE GREEN. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 4 pails she ; 20 Ib. alum ; 
f Ib. bichromate, ten minutes later ; 
2 Ib. sugar of lead, ten minutes later ; 
15 oz. Paris blue, dissolved in hot water, adding half 
a gill of sulphuric acid. 

No. 5 GREEN, MEDIUM DEEP SHADE. ' 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff ; 60 Ib. mechanical wood pulp ; 5 pails size ; 
20 Ib. alum ; 2i Ib. bichromate, fifteen minutes later ; 
6 Ib. sugar of lead, fifteen minutes later ; 1J Ib. Paris blue. 

No. 5 GREEN. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff; 60 Ib. mechanical wood pulp ; 
24 Ib. bichromate, 15 minutes later ; 

6 Ib, sugar of lead, fifteen minutes later ; 

7 oz. Paris blue ; 4 pails size ; 15 Ib. alum. 

No. 12 PALE GREEN. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 60 Ib. wood pulp ; 

3 oz. bichromate ; 6 oz. sugar of lead ; 

4 pails size ; 15 Ib. alum ; 3 Ib. Paris blue. 

No. 3 GREEN, DEEP CLEAR TINT. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 3 Stuff; li Ib. bichromate ; 

3 Ib. sugar of lead, fifteen minutes later ; 

2 Ib. Paris blue, ten minutes later ; 

5 pails size ; 20 Ib, alum, 



32 THE PRACTICAL PAPEEMAKER. 

DEEP ORANGE. 

FOE 250 LB. DRY PAPEE. 

No. 4 Stuff ; 40 Ib. wood pulp ; 4 pails size ; 

20 Ib. alum ; 6 Ib. bichromate ; 18 Ib. sugar of lead 

25 Ib. Venetian red ; 50 Ib. straw pulp. 

No. 9 SKIN COLOUR. 

FOE 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff; 60 Ib. wood pulp ; 4 pails size ; 
20 Ib. alum ; 9J Ib. green copperas ; 
104 Ib. crystal soda ; 8 oz. bichromate ; 

1 4 Ib. sugar of lead. 

DEEP OLIVE. 

FOE 250 IB. DEY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff; 60 Ib. wood pulp ; 4 pails size ; 

15 Ib. alum ; 2 Ib. green copperas ; 

2 Ib. crystal soda ; 2 Ib. Venetian red. 

No. 6 BUFF. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPEE. 
No. 4 Stuff; 60 Ib. yellow wood ; 
4 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum ; 13 Ib. yellow ochre ; 
10 oz. Venetian red ; 1 gill Brazil wood dye. 

NANKEEN TISSUE. 

FOE 200 LB. DEY PAPER. 

Nos. 17 and 18 Rope Stuffs, | ; canvas, $ ; 

3 Ib. potash ; 3 Ib. green copperas ; 
2 Ib. crystal soda. 

LILAC TISSUE, DEEP SHADE. 

FOR 200 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Nos. 17 and 18 Rope Stuffs, 4 ; No. 5 Stuff, 4 ; 
8 oz. aniline blue ; 3 oz. diamond fuchine ; 
2 oz. violet methyl, R.R.R.R, brand, 



COLOURED PAPERS. 33 

WHITE TISSUE. 

FOR 200 LB. DKY PAPER. 

Nos. 17 and 18 Rope Stuffs, ; No. 5 Stuff, ; 

5 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ; 2 gills Brazil wood dye. 

BLUE TISSUE. 

FOR 200 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Rope Stuff, | ; good sailcloth, ; 

2 Ib. ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ; 5 gills Brazil wood dye. 

FINE GREY WRITINGS. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 6 pails size ; 

25 Ib. alum, 12 oz. bichromate, 2 Ib. sugar of lead, 

to be dissolved together in one pail, and put into 

the engine while hot ; 

3 oz. Paris blue, half-an-hour later ; 

4 oz. logwood extract. 

FINE GREY WRITINGS. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 6 pails size ; 

25 Ib. alum ; 15 oz. bichromate ; 2 Ib. sugar of lead ; 

6 oz. Paris blue, half-an-hour later ; 

7 oz. logwood extract. 

FINE GREY WRITINGS. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 
No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 

3 Ib. ultramarine, B.B.R.V. ; 2 Ib. Venetian red ; 

4 Ib. yellow ochre ; 6 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum. 

SUPERFINE GREY WRITINGS. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 3 Stuff, full bleached ; 
4 Ib. ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ; 1 Ib. bichromate ; 
14 Ib. sugar of lead ; 3 Ib. Venetian red ; 
6 pails size ; 25 Ib. alum. 



34 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

CATECHU BROWN WRAPPING. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Hemp bagging, 4 ; No. 4 Stuff, ^ ; 

7 pails catechu ; 5 pails size ; 15 Ib. alum ; 

3 Ib. bichromate. 

CATECHU BROWN, DEEP COLOUR. 

FOR 150 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, unbleached ; 3 pails size ; 10 Ib. alum ; 
3 pails catechu ; 2 Ib. green copperas ; 

3 Ib. bichromate. 

ANILINE BLUE, DEEP SHADE. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 5 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum ; 

4 oz. aniline blue ; oz. diamond fuchine. 

No. 13 ANILINE BLUE. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 5 pails size ; 15 Ib. alum ; 
3 oz. aniline blue ; $ oz. diamond fuchine. 

No. 70 ANILINE BLUE, DEEP COLOUR. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 4 pails size ; 

15 Ib. alum ; 2 oz. aniline blue ; 

J oz. diamond fuchine ; 6 oz. Berlin blue. 

LILAC. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 5 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum 

3 oz. aniline blue ; oz. diamond fuchine. 

DEEP LILAC. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 5 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum 

4 oz, aniline blue ; 1 oz, diamond fuchine, 



COLOURED PAPERS. 35 

No. 4 DEEP ANILINE BLUE. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 3 Stuff, full bleached ; 6 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum ; 
44 oz. aniline blue ; oz. diamond fuchine. 

No. 7000 DEEP LILAC. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Nos. 3 and 4 Stuffs, half and half ; 4 pails size ; 
15 Ib. alum ; 2 oz. aniline blue ; 

2 oz. diamond fuchine ; 3| oz. Paris blue. 

No. 4 BERLIN BLUE. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, half bleached ; 5 pails size ; 
20 Ib. alum ; \ oz. fuchine ; 5 Ib. Paris blue. 

DEEP ANILINE BLUE. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 5 pails size ; 
20 Ib. alum ; 9 Ib. Paris blue ; 
3J oz. aniline blue ; 3 oz. diamond fuchine. 
(The above blue presents a fine clear colour, very deep 
and uniform. ) 

No. 8 VENETIAN RED. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 3 Stuff, unbleached ; 50 Ib. chemical wood pulp ; 
4 pails size ; 15 Ib. alum ; 60 Ib. Venetian red ; 

3 pints Brazil wood dye. 

FINE YELLOW PRINTINGS. 

FOR 200 LB. DRY PAPER. 
Spanish Esparto, \ ; Oran Esparto, J ; 

2 Ib. bichromate ; 4 Ib. sugar of lead ; 

3 pails size ; 10 Ib, alum, 



36 THE PRACTICAL PAPEBMAKER. 

No. 70 DEEP VENETIAN RED. 

FOB 200 LB. DRY PAPER. 
No. 4 Stuff, unbleached ; 5 pails size ; 
20 Ib. alum ; 2 Ib. yellow ochre ; 
50 Ib. Venetian red ; 3 pints Brazil wood dye. 

No. 58 PINK. 

FOE 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 
No. 4 Stuff; 5 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum ; 
3 oz. diamond fuchine, dissolved in 300 ounces of 

boiling water, and strained through a fine flannel 

or silk bag. 

DEEP EOSINE PINK. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 
No. 3 Stuff; 5 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum ; 

12 oz. cosine, marked B.N., dissolved in boiling water, 
and strained through a flannel bag into the engine. 

PALE EOSINE PINK. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 3 Stuff; 5 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum ; 

3 oz. eosine, marked B.N. ; 

J oz. violet methyl strain into the engine. 

EOSINE A DEEP PINK TO BLOOD RED. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 3 Stuff, full bleached ; 

13 oz. eosine, marked A ; 4 oz. violet methyl. 

(This is a deep pink of a beautiful shade. ) 

YELLOW WRAPPING, FOR POST PAPER. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff ; 60 Ib. mechanical wood pulp ; 

2 Ib. bichromate of potash, fifteen minutes later ; 

4 Ib. sugar of lead ; 20 Ib. alum ; 4 pails size ; 
60 Ib. straw pulp, by Lahosse's system, 



COLOURED PAPERS. 37 

YELLOW PRINTINGS. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, half bleached; 

50 Ib. mechanical wood pulp ; 

1| Ib. bichromate, twenty minutes later ; 

J Ib. sugar of lead, half-an-hour later ; 

15 Ib. alum ; 3 pails size ; 50 Ib. straw pulp. 

No. 4 YELLOW. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff; 4 Ib. bichromate, twenty minutes later ; 

8 Ib. sugar of lead, half-an-hour later ; 

20 Ib. alum ; 6 pails size ; 40 Ib. straw pulp. 

No. 95 YELLOW. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff ; 20 Ib. mechanical wood pulp ; 
2J Ib. bichromate, twenty minutes later ; 

7 5 Ib. sugar of lead, half-an-hour later ; 
20 Ib. alum ; 4 pails size. 

No. 90 YELLOW. 

- . FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff ; 40 Ib. mechanical wood pulp ; 
15 Ib. alum ; 4 pails size ; 5 Ib. bichromate ; 

8 Ib. sugar of lead. 

No. 29 YELLOW. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff ; 15 Ib. alum ; 4 pails size ; 
U Ib. bichromate ; 5 Ib. sugar of lead. 

No, 23 YELLOW, 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER, 
No. 4 Stuff ; 40 Ib. mechanical wood pulp J 
15 Ib. alum ; 4 pails size ; 5 Ib. bichromate ; 
11 Ib. sugar of lead. 



38 THE PRACTICAL PAPEBMAKER. 

YELLOW PRINTINGS. 

FOR 450 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Tunis Esparto, 4 5 No. 2 Spanish Esparto, J ; 
20 Ib. French ochre ; 4 Ib. dark English ochre ; 
8 Ib. sugar of lead ; 4 J Ib. .bichromate ; 
2 Ib. red chrome. 

YELLOW PRINTINGS. 

FOR 400 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Tunis Esparto, ; Oran Esparto, ; 
85 Ib. bichromate ; 7 Ib. sugar of lead. 

CATECHU BROWN. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, unbleached ; 4 pails size ; 

20 Ib. alum ; 12 pails catechu ; 

6 Ib. bichromate ; 3 Ib. crystal soda. 

CATECHU BROWN. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, half bleached ; 4 pails size ; 

4 pails catechu ; 20 Ib. alum ; 1^ Ib. bichromate. 

No. 134 CATECHU BROWN. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, full bleached ; 4J Ib. green copperas ; 
4 pails size ; 3 pails catechu ; 20 Ib. alum ; 
3J Ib. bichromate. 

No. 8 ORANGE, 

FOR 200 LB. DRY PAPERi 

No. 4 Stuff ; 50 Ib. yellow mechanical Wood pulp J 
20 Ib. orange mineral ; 1 j Ib. Venetian red ; 
4 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum. 

(The orange and the Venetian red must be carefully strained 
through a fine wire or flannel bag.) 



COLOURED PAPERS. 39 

No. 68 ORANGE. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff ; 60 Ib. mechanical wood pulp ; 

15 Ib. alum ; 4 pails size ; 30 Ib. orange mineral. 

No. 22 ORANGE. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff ; 60 Ib. mechanical wood pulp ; 

15 Ib. alum ; 3 pails size ; 15 Ib. orange mineral ; 

1 Ib. Venetian red. 

No. 24 ORANGE. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff ; 50 Ib. mechanical wood pulp ; 

12 Ib. orange mineral ; 15 Ib. alum ; 4 pails size. 

No. 95 ORANGE. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, only half-bleached or gas-bleached, 

and not potched ; 

3 pails size ; 15 Ib. alum ; 6 Ib. bichromate ; 
8 Ib. sugar of lead ; 60 Ib. superfine orange. 

No. 70 VENETIAN RED. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, half-bleached ; 2| Ib. yellow ochre } 
45 Ib. Venetian red ; 20 Ib. alum ; 5 pails size. 

No. 125 ORANGE YELLOW. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff ; 40 Ib. mechanical wood pulp ; 
3 pails size ; 15 Ib. alum ; 6 Ib. bichromate ; 
8 Ib. sugar of lead ; 25 Ib. Venetian red : 
50 Ib. straw pulp. 



40 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

No. 2 YELLOW WRAPPING. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, unbleached ; 
50 Ib. wood pulp, No. 2 quality ; 4 pails size ; 
20 Ib. alum ; 16 Ib. sugar of lead, brown ; 
8 Ib. bichromate ; 20 Ib. Venetian red. 

YELLOW OCHRE, FOR WRAPPING. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, unbleached ; 

60 Ib. wood pulp, No. 2 quality ; 4 pails size ; 

15 Ib. alum ; 20 Ib. yellow ochre ; 

5 oz. Venetian red ; 4 oz. magenta lake. 

PALE ORANGE. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 
No. 4 Stuff; 40 Ib. wood pulp ; 4 pails size ; 
15 Ib. alum ; 15 Ib. superfine orange. 

No. 115 GREY. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, half-bleached ; 4 pails size ; 
20 Ib. alum ; 3 Ib. green copperas ; 

3 Ib. crystal soda ; 4 Ib. yellow ochre, dark ; 

4 Ib. yellow ochre, light ; 5 oz. Venetian red. 

No. 34 VENETIAN RED. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff ; 40 Ib. yellow wood pulp ; 

4 pails size ; 15 Ib. alum ; 48 Ib. yellow ochre ; 

50 Ib. Venetian red. 

(This is a beautiful deep Venetian red, principally used 
for the covers of serials. ) 



COLOURED PAPERS. 41 

No. 84 FAWN. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff; 4 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum ; 
2 Ib. green copperas ; 2 Ib. crystal soda ; 
14 Ib. Venetian red. 

No. 2 FAWN. 
FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 
No. 4 Stuff ; 20 Ib. chemical wood pulp ; 

5 oz. ultramarine ; 1 Ib. Venetian red ; 
4 Ib. yellow ochre, French. 

No. 40 DEEP PARIS BLUE. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, half bleached ; 4 pails size ; 
20 Ib. alum ; 2 Ib. logwood extract ; 

6 Ib. Berlin or Paris blue ; 2 pints cochineal. 

SATURNINE RED. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 3 Stuff ; % 4 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum ; 

50 Ib. saturnine red ; 5 Ib. superfine orange. 

CHROME ORANGE. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 1 Stuff, full bleached ; 25 Ib. alum ; 
6 pails size ; 56 Ib. chrome orange paste, No. 1. 
(This is a fine clear orange for a good quality of paper. ) 

SOLUBLE BROWN. 

FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER. 

No. 4 Stuff, half bleached ; 5 pails size ; 
20 Ib. alum ; 15 Ib. soluble brawn. 

(This colouring matter must be carefully strained into the 
engine. It is the best substitute for catechu dyed 
papers, and has all the characteristics of catechu, and 
also the advantage of being much cheaper. ) 
D 



42 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

VIOLET, DEEP SHADE. 

FOE, 250 LB. DRY PAPEE. 

No. 3 Stuff, full bleached ; 25 Ib. alum ; 

5 pails size ; 6 Ib. violet methyl, marked R.R.R.R. 

3 oz. blue methyl. 



COLOURED ESPARTO PAPERS. 

DARK YELLOW. 

FOR 400 LB. DRY PAPER. 

14 Ib. bichromate of potash ; 

If Ib. brown sugar of lead, dissolved in one pail 
of hot water strain into the engine through a 
flannel bag ; 

24 Ib. green copperas, one hour later ; 25 Ib. alum. 

ORANGE YELLOW. 

FOR 400 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Oran Esparto ; 74 Ib. bichromate ; 

15 Ib. brown sugar of lead, dissolved in 5 pails of 
hot water strain through a flannel bag ; 

J Ib. Venetian red ; 25 Ib. alum ; 7 pails size. 

FINE DEEP BLUE. 

FOR 400 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Oran Esparto ; 1 Ib. crystal soda ; 
10 Ib. prussiate of potash ; 

3 Ib. green copperas, dissolved in 4 pails of hot water : 

4 quarts iron liquor ; 

1 oz. magenta, dissolved in one pail of hot water ; 

25 Ib. alum. 



COLOURED PAPERS. 43 

. CHOCOLATE BROWN. 

FOR 400 LB. DRY PAPER. 

400 lb. Oran Esparto ; 37 Ib. Venetian red ; 

3 lb. catechu ; 5 lb. bluestone ; 5 lb. green copperas ; 

4 lb. ultramarine all one hour apart ; 
20 lb. alum ; 7 pails size. 

FINE ROSE TINT. 

FOR 400 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Medium Spanish Esparto, 4 ; good Oran Esparto, 4 ; 

2 oz. cosine, marked A, dissolved in one pail of boiling 
water, and strained through a flannel bag. 

ROSE TINT. 

FOE 400 LB. DRY PAPER. 
400 lb. Oran Esparto ; 14 lb. Venetian red ; 
1 lb. chrome yellow ; 20 lb. alum. 

STRAW TINT. 

FOR 400 LB. DRY PAPER. 

400 lb. Oran Esparto ; 1 4 lb. bichromate of potash ; 

3 lb. white sugar of lead, dissolved in one pail of hot 
water ; 

i lb. ultramarine ; 1 J pint iron liquor. 

AMBER. 

FOR 400 LB. DRY PAPER. 
400 lb. Oran Esparto ; 

\ lb. chrome yellow, mixed in the engine one hour ; 
1 pint iron liquor ; 20 lb. alum ; 6 pails size. 

LIGHT BUFF. 

FOR 400 LB. DRY PAPER. 
400 lb. Oran Esparto ; 4 lb. green copperas ; 

4 oz. sugar of lead ; 3 lb. bichromate of potash ; 
15 lb. alum ; 5 pails size. 



44: THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

ORANGE BUFF. 

FOE 400 LB. DRY PAPER. 

400 lb. Oran Esparto ; 6 Ib. bichromate of potash ; 
8 lb. sugar of lead ; 14 lb. Venetian red ; 
20 lb. alum ; 6 pails size. 

FINE AMBER WRITINGS. 

FOR 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

Medium Spanish Esparto, | ; F.F. Rags, J ; Thirds, 
64 oz. nitrate of lead ; 3 oz. bichromate of potash ; 
11 oz. Venetian red, strained throiigh a silk bag ; 
30 lb. alum ; 8 pails size. 



PAPERMAKING MACHINE. 

Great care is necessary for the satisfactory work- 
ing of this department in the mill. Many changes 
occur to occupy the machineman : his attention, for 
example, would be immediately called to reduce or 
increase, as the case may be, the flow of water on 
the wire in emptying an extra fast or an extra soft 
stuff. To ensure satisfactory weight and uniform 
colour, two chests, should be used, the beaterman 
emptying into the one, and the machineman working 
from the other. Every chest of stuff ought to be 
wrought separately, and, when made, should be 
ticketed No. 1, No. 2, and so on. By this means 
shading in the reams will be avoided, although a 
slight difference of shade should exist in the order, 
as it is at times unavoidable. 

Paper machines in all mills are much alike, though 



PAPERMAKING MACHINE THE WIRE. 45 

some of their parts (such as the sand-trap, which can 
be easily changed to the newest design at little 
expense) differ in every mill. 

The best form of sand-trap is made in three com- 
partments, through which the stuff flows 20 feet in 
one direction, and, turning, flows 20 feet in the op- 
posite direction, then back again 20 feet, and falls 
into the strainers. This trap is covered with old 
wet felt, the pile against the run or flow of the stuff, 
and is hung at each end on pivots, and supported in 
an upright position by four legs upon hinges. When 
washing is required, lift the legs, turn the sand-trap 
round on the pivots, and wash out ; adjust the trap 
again, and put the legs in position. This operation 
can be performed in from five to ten minutes. 
Pieces of lead 2 inches square should be in the 
bottom of the trap, and skimmers inserted about 
2 inches into the pulp the former to catch the 
heavy, and the latter to catch the light floating 
dirt. 

The Wire. 

There are many different opinions as to how wires 
should be worked, all, however, having the same 
end in view namely, to run the wire as long as 
possible. A wire should never be tightened in a 
careless manner, or unknown to the foreman, whose 
duty it is to look after it. 

It is certain that the slacker a wire can be worked, 
the longer it will last. It is, at the same time, a 
well-known fact that a tight wire runs steadiest, 



46 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

and gives the workman least trouble with crushing 
at the coucher rolls, and enables him to couch his 
paper hard, and causes less trouble in the frequent 
changing of the wet felts. 

In changing, cut off the old wire, remove and care- 
fully clean the tube and carrying rolls. Prove the 
rolls level and parallel the bottom couch roll with 
the press roll, and the breast roll with the bottom 
couch roll. Put on the wire in the usual way, and 
place everything in position except the top couch 
roll. Turn the wire round by hand, and examine 
it carefully for blemishes; if any, make a note of 
them, and measure their distance from the seam, in 
order to know their exact position, and watch them, 
that the merits of a wire may be judged on a future 
occasion. Next put on the top coucher, and let the 
straining roll down with only its own weight on the 
wire. Prove the couch roll parallel with the bottom 
one, and run the wire for about twenty minutes, or 
while the strainer is being furnished. Tighten the 
straining roll just sufficient to take off the slackness, 
but not to stretch or rack the meshes of the wire ; 
start, and run for some time. If the paper crushes, 
ease the couch roll weights, and work as little water 
as possible consistent with the closing of the paper. 
In a short time everything will come right ; and the 
longer it is worked, the better it will be. If the 
couch roll jackets have been changed, some trouble 
may be expected with the couching. The wires 
should last from nine to ten weeks, working night 
and day at an average speed of 85 feet per minute 
upon a 60-inch or 90-inch machine. 



MAKING EDGES ON PAPER. 47 

Making Edges on Paper. 

In Continental mills there is a method of making 
edges on the paper as it passes along on the wire, 
which saves the machineman much trouble, and is 
very useful to him in many emergencies. 

Procure a piece of |-inch composition pipe ; close 
up one end, make a hole in the centre of the 
closed end with a darning needle, and connect the 
other end of the pipe to the nearest water-tap 
with a piece of rubber tube ; fix the end with the 
hole in it upon the wire frame between the two 
vacuum boxes; bend the pipe, and direct the fine 
jet of water upon the edge of the paper in such a 
manner as to give the edge the appearance of being 
cut. "With this, jet the edges can be made either 
thick or thin, to suit circumstances. If the coucher 
jacket is a little bare at the ends, and the paper 
hanging and creasing at the edges as it leaves the 
wire, the extreme edges of the paper may be 
thickened by slightly bending the pipe until it is 
found convenient to change the jacket on the top 
roll. 

First Press Rolls. 

This is a part of the machine where a considerable 
amoxint of waste paper is made, and any mode of 
preventing it must be of advantage as well to the 
manufacturer as the machineman. 

The author has tried a contrivance which effec- 
tually pi-events the paper breaking at the press rolls ; 



48 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

and if it should break and run across the roll, by 
setting this it will go just as far as is desired. Cut 
a long strip from the edge of a wet felt, and draw 
out a single thread from it about two yards long ; 
lead the end of the thread inside the press roll 
frame, then tie a knot upon it, and lead it in be- 
tween the paper and the top press roll. It will 
travel round with the paper and over the top of the 
" doctor," making a slight impression on the paper. 
When the paper breaks at the edge, it will run 
across to this impression and no farther, but will 
keep running up the press roll in a straight line 
with it, leaving an edge exactly as if it had been 
cut, which will not break at the calenders. A small 
groove should be made on the back of the " doctor," 
to keep the thread in the desired line for the 
different widths of paper. The thread will last 
about a week without renewing. 

This method is a perfectly successful one, the 
author having had it in constant use when making 
thin papers. It saves broken, and can be worked so 
near the edge that the impression is taken off at the 
cutter. The reason for recommending the thread 
from the felt in preference to worsted, is because it 
is harder twisted, and makes a neater impression. 

Cleanliness and Order. 

Machinemen and their assistants ought to have 
soap and towel allowed them. The strictest cleanli- 
ness, especially of the hands, should be enforced. 
A considerable quantity of paper is destroyed by 



FINISHING PAPER. 49 

handling with dirty hands. To obviate this, a piece 
of felt for lifting off the rolls of paper should always 
be kept convenient. The floor and the pit under- 
neath the machine must be kept scrupulously clean. 
It is a very good plan to have the sides of the pit 
lined with thin boarding, kept about an inch from 
the sides, so that the oil which accumulates on the 
framing will run down the walls without coming 
into contact with the boarding. On the floor of 
the pit a sparred bottom should be placed, to allow 
any sand or dirt from the feet to drop through the 
spaces ; this will prevent the broken getting dirtied. 
The false bottom should be lifted twice a week and 
cleaned out. In washing up, all the corners and 
out-of-the-way places should be carefully cleaned. 

In order to save time, when a wire is to be 
changed, all the tools necessary for that purpose 
should be collected together before the machine is 
shut ; everything, in fact, ought to be in its own 
place, and ready when wanted. Nut keys should 
never be allowed to be removed from the machine- 
house, as they might be wanted at the very time 
they are in use elsewhere. 

Finishing Paper. 

The appearance of paper when finished depends 
greatly on those in charge of this department. 
Paper, to take the eye, must be made up in a 
careful and tidy manner. Careless tying, or leaving 
one sheet or quire projecting beyond the rest in the 
ream, should not be tolerated, for the market value 



50 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

of the article depends in a great measure on the 
manner in which it is presented to the scrutiny of 
the buyer ; and the reputation of the manufacturer 
is often injured by carelessly or loosely tied reams 
going into the consumer's hands. It should also be 
borne in mind that carelessly put-up goods do not 
improve in passing through the hands of railway 
officials. 

Paper sent out in web should be tightly reeled, 
and kept even in the edges. In this condition it 
will have a finished appearance, and command a 
better market, for the printing and uniform cutting 
is thereby greatly facilitated. 

This department, like the others, should be kept 
perfectly clean and orderly. Cleanliness and order 
cannot be too rigidly enforced throughout all the 
operations in a paper mill. 



Details of the Preparation of the several sorts of 
Colouring Matter previously mentioned. 

CATECHU. 

Boil in an iron boiler 25 pails of water, then add 
200 Ib. of finely-powdered catechu gradually, and 
keep stirring. Boil until thoroughly dissolved, which 
will occupy from two and a half to three hours of 
brisk boiling. Put it into casks, and let it remain 
until cold. While the catechu is cooling, dissolve 
12 Ib. of bluestone; let it also remain until cold. 
When both are perfectly cold, add the bluestone to 
the catechu, and stir well. 



PREPARATION OF COLOURING MATTER. 51 

Care must be taken not to add either in a hot 
state, as by doing so the colour will be injured. 

BERLIN BLUE. 

Dissolve 100 Ib. of yellow prussiate of potash in 
one boiler; dissolve 100 Ib. of green copperas in 
another boiler. When both are thoroughly dissolved, 
let them be put together in a boiler with a close- 
fitting cover ; then dissolve 20 Ib. of bichromate of 
potash, and add it to the prussiate and the copperas. 
Boil again, and keep stirring; then add 17 Ib. of 
vitriol, stir thoroughly, and let it remain for two or 
three days. Prepare some casks in the interval for 
the reception of the solution, by boring holes in the 
staves say 6 in number one above the other, 
and 6 inches apart, beginning with the bottom one, 
which must be 2 feet from the extreme bottom. 
Into these holes fit long plugs, which can be easily 
removed. When the casks are ready, fill up with 
the prepared solution, and allow them to stand un- 
disturbed until properly settled. Then run off the 
water by the holes in the staves, removing the plugs 
one by one beginning with the top one as the 
cask gets empty, until the blue makes its appear- 
ance, when the plugs should be replaced, and the 
casks filled up with water again and well stirred ; 
this washing to be continued four or five times, as 
circumstances will permit. The oftener it is washed, 
the brighter the blue will be. 

PERNAMBUCO DYE-WOOD. 
Put into a boiler 20 pails of water, and bring it 



52 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

to the boiling point; add 200 Ib. of Pernambuco 
wood, and boil for eight hours. Put it into casks, 
and wash same as for Berlin blue, adding 8 Ib. of 
the muriate of tin. 

ANTICHLORINE : ITS MANUFACTURE. 

Procure a large cask, or, better, have one made 
without the bulge which ordinary casks have in the 
centre ; raise it upon a stand 3 feet high ; fit into it 
two frames or screens, which can be easily removed 
when desired ; work across this frame a network of 
white cord or twine of sufficient strength to support 
a weight of 200 Ibs., and have it sufficiently close to 
prevent the soda falling through the meshes. Upon 
each of these screens put 200 Ib. of the ordinary 
crystal soda of commerce, then put on the lid or 
cover, and clay it round perfectly tight. Make two 
or three small air holes in the clay, or have an air- 
cock attached to the cover underneath the screens, 
and attached to the cask a pipe connected to a retort, 
into which put 9 Ib. of sulphur. Start a fire below 
the retort, and, when the sulphur begins to melt, 
heat a piece of iron rod to a red heat, and insert it 
into the sulphur, which will commence to burn and 
send its fumes through this pipe into the cask, pass- 
ing through the crystal soda, converting it into an 
antichlorine. When this 9 Ib. of sulphur is all con- 
sumed, the operation must be repeated, using again 
9 Ib. of sulphur. 

Proportions : 400 Ib. of crystal soda and 18 Ib. of sulphur. 
Dissolve the antichlorine in the cask, and bottle 



PREPARATION OF COLOURING MATTER. 53 

it off into carboys, and convey it to the beating 
engine department. 

BLEACH TEST. 

Mix |- oz. of starch into a paste with cold water, 
then add boiling water until it amounts to one pint, 
adding two drachms of iodide of potassium ; when 
cold it is ready for use. Drop a few drops upon a 
handful of stuff: if any chlorine is present, it will 
immediately turn black ; if none, it will remain un- 
changed. 

COCHINEAL : ITS PREPARATION. 
Put 3 Ib. of cochineal flies into a carboy; pour in 
ammonia until they are thoroughly saturated ; let it 
stand closely corked for ten days ; but if they get 
dry during that time, add more ammonia, then at 
the end of ten days pour the contents of the carboy 
into a flannel bag. Put it into a vessel three parts 
filled with water, and let it remain for 24 hours; 
then strain and squeeze the bag until the colour is 
all extracted. 3 Ib. of flies ought to make 6 gallons 
of colouring, to suit the papers previously mentioned. 

ENGINE SIZE FRENCH METHOD. 
This size, if properly made, ought to be as white 
as milk, and should not alter the colour of the stuff 
in the slightest degree. Boil 1 3 pails of water in a 
copper-shelled boiler. Introduce 90 Ibs. of crystal 
soda, keep boiling for half an hour, then add 
gradually 200 Ibs. of finely-powdered rosin, and keep 
stirring ; boil for two hours after all the rosin is 



54 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

added, then add 5 pails of cold water, and boil again 
for an hour and a half ; then put it into stock-chests, 
and allow to remain for ten days, or longer if possible. 
The best method is to have a number of stock-chests, 
each capable of containing a week's size, using out 
of the one while you are filling up the others. 
Cubic contents of small rosin boiler, 38,714 cubic inches. 

PREPARATION OF SIZE FOR THE ENGINES. 
Put into a large copper-shelled boiler, three-fourths 
filled with water, 20 pails of this prepared rosin. 
Raise the heat to 40, and add 120 Ibs. of potato 
flour, previously mixed with cold water, to the 
consistency of cream. Raise the heat up to 60, 
then put in such a quantity of water so that there 
will be of rosin 4 Ibs., starch 3^ Ibs., and of soda 2 
Ibs., in every 4 pails of the prepared size. In all, the 
boiler will contain 144 pails of size. 

Cubic contents of large-size mixer, 153,400 cubic inches 
= about 202 pails, the pail being 756 cubic inches. 

TURPENTINE SIZE. 

FOR AN ENGINE OF 300 LB. DRY PAPER. 

1 lb. potasli ; 6| Ib. turpentine ; 6J Ib. starch ; 6| Ib. water. 

Boil slowly, and keep stirring for 2 hours ; 

it is then ready for the engine. 

SOAP SIZE, 

MADE AND TTSED IN THE INTERIOR OF RITSSIA. 

200 lb. tallow ; 35 lb. potash, dissolved in 15 pails of water, 

adding 14 Ibs. lime. 

Melt the tallow first, then add the potash water, 
one pailful at a time, until the grease is completely 



PREPARATION OF COLOURING MATTER. 55 

killed. Keep continually stirring, and be careful not 
to allow the size to spill while stirring, as it is very 
likely to do so. 

The best proportions are as follows : 

7 Ib. tallow ; 2 Ib. potash ; 1 Ib. lime ; 6 gallons water. 

Boil 6 hours. Use 2 gallons to the engine 

of 250 Ib. dry paper. 

TUB-SIZINGPREPARATION OF THE GELATINE. 
Steep the skins in stagnant water until putrefac- 
tion begins, seeing however that it does not proceed 
too far, as the colour of the size will in that case be 
injured. Immediately putrefaction ensues, remove 
the skins, wash, beat them thoroughly, and put them 
into clean water, strongly impregnated with sul- 
phurous acid. This arrests the putrefaction and 
bleaches the skins. Fill into the boilers, raise the 
heat to 150" for the first draught of gelatine, adding 
5 to the heat for every additional draught. Run 
off the size into stock-chests, into which put a 
sufficient quantity of alum to preserve it. 

Care must also be taken not to over-heat the 
skins in the process of extracting the gelatine, as by 
doing so the colour of the size will be injured. 

PREPARATION OF GELATINE FOR THE 
SIZING MACHINE. 

Take 100 gallons of pure gelatine and 10 gallons 
of thick prepared rosin size, without the potato 
starch; mix together, and add 80 Ibs. of alum 
dissolved in 40 gallons of water; stir all well to- 
gether, and heat to the desired temperature, and 
strain through a fine wire into the sizing box. 



56 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

ANILINE COLOURS. 

It is very important to the papermaker to have 
some knowledge of Aniline Colours, as they enter 
largely into the production of tinted papers. 

The best method of preparing them is to dissolve 
them in wooden tubs, as follows : Weigh off the 
required quantities, put them into the tub, pour on 
boiling water, and stir well. The proper proportion 
is one part of colour to 100 parts of water, which 
ensures a perfectly dissolved colouring matter. The 
solution should be prepared at least 24 hours before 
xising, which assists the decomposition of the colour. 
Aniline Colours should be carefully filtered through 
a fine flannel bag, or, better, through a white silk 
bag, which ensures a perfectly clean colour, and 
prevents specks on the paper. 



The following is a list of the Aniline Colours most 
suitable for dyeing paper pulp, detailing their effect 
when used alone or combined with other colouring 
agents. 

RED LAKE. 

A fluid fast in colour, which produces a beautiful 
pink for extra superfine, superfine, note, and tissue 
papers ; also well adapted, in combination with the 
best brands of ultramarine, for producing that warm 
cream colour (of a bright and clear appearance) so 
much desired in high-class cream wove and laid post. 

This colour holds a prominent position for its 
great strength and durability, combined with cheap- 



ANILINE COLOURS. 57 

EOSINE 

Is a comparatively new colour, much used by 
makers of tinted papers on the Continent. It pro- 
duces the finest shades of pink down to a deep 
yellowish red, and, combined with sugar of lead, 
produces a bluish pink on tissue a deep and clear 
colour approaching to blood red. 

LAC A LA COCHENILLE 

Is a colouring matter, distinguished for its fine 
shade, and, on account of its cheapness, is well 
adapted for red and pink papers of a medium 
quality, such as posters, wrapping, and blotting 
papers. 

DIAMOND MAGENTA 

Is used for producing common reds, toning up 
news, and, in combination with aniline blue, for 
producing aniline blue papers and aniline lilacs. 



VIOLET METHYL 

Produces the brightest violet shades, also brightens 
up white papers, and, in combination with Paris 
blue, makes that deep blue which is so attractive 
to the eye, owing to its bright and handsome 
appearance. 

PARIS BLUE 

Is a colouring matter which requires care and 
experience in preparing for the engine, for it is often 



58 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

sold in an impure state. Paper-makers ought to see 
to its purity before using, as it is often considerably 
adulterated with starch, farina, clay, and other 
foreign matters, which are added to make weight, 
and are of no use to the papermaker. 

The best brands are No. 1 and No. 5 ; they are 
of great yielding power for light and dark blue 
tissues and for ordinary papers. 

Paris blue is sometimes sold in paste : when sold 
in this form, it never contains more than 40 per cent, 
of colouring matter. It is also supplied in pieces, 
which are easily soluble in water, and is very suit- 
able for deep blue papers. The brands No. 6 and 
No. 7 produce very dark shades of blue by adding 
violet methyl. When consistent with the paper to 
be produced, a little dilute sulphuric acid should 
be added to the pieces, as it assists their yielding 
power, and brightens the colour considerably. 



METHYL BLUE 

Is a very brilliant colour, not affected by chlorine. 
It is much used in white papers, and for making 
fine shades of blue; it also combines readily with 
magenta for the production of lilacs. 



SILK GREEN 

Is a chemically pure colouring matter, producing 
beautiful shades of green ; it can be easily tinted by 
the use of Paris blue or chrome yellow. 



ULTRAMARINE. 59 

METHYL GREEN. 

Used for very fine shades of green of a bluish 
tinge : when used with methyl blue, it produces all 
the shades of peacock green, giving a most beautiful 
effect. 



ULTRAMARINE. 

Ultramarine is used most extensively by paper- 
makers, not only to brighten, but actually to colour 
paper stuff. In common papers, such as news and 
printings, this colour is added to increase the liveli- 
ness of the paper, and give it a good bright white- 
ness. Ultramarine, however, is used also in blue 
papers of medium quality, and, when carefully made 
and of the finest quality, can be used for the best 
papers. 

The two faults which act against the use of 
ultramarine in papermaking are the grit or small 
particles of hard foreign substances, and the inability 
of the blue to stand the alum used in sizing. With 
these disadvantages removed, pure ultramarines 
might be used for fine papers. It is a very necessary 
thing for papermakers to examine their blues, and 
this can be done very simply. 

Weigh about 50 grains of each sample of ultra- 
marine, and mix each well with 100 grains of terra 
alba, and look at the mixtures side by side in a 
good light. The eye can get a good estimate of 
colour from this test; but, to make more certain, 
examine the samples over again, only letting the 



60 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

price of each sample guide the weight in grains to 
be tested, and proceed in the usual way. Thus, 
supposing four samples at 65s., 72s., 76s., and 80s. 
respectively are to be tested, proceed as follows : 
Bring each sample to a level so far as price per cwt. 
is concerned. The 65s. sample being 15s. dearer 
than the 80s., more of it can be bought for 80s., so 
the test must be carried out accordingly. If 80s. 
equal 112 Ibs., 65s. will give you 138 Ibs. The sum 
in each case is 

65 : 80 : : 112 : 138 
72 : 80 : : 112 : 124 
76 : 80 :: 112 : 118 

By mixing these relative proportions of ultramarine, 
each with 1 00 grains of terra alba, upon white paper, 
the eye will discern the best sample for the money. 
In the case of the 80s. blue, of course use 112 
grains. 

To test its alum-resisting properties, dissolve the 
same amount of each sample in water, and mix in 
this water about \ Ib. of pulp. When thoroughly 
mixed, and each lot of pulp is well and evenly 
coloured, add one glassful of the ordinary mill alum 
liquor, either from pure alum or aluminous cake, to 
each, losing no time over the operation. Stir each 
well and continually with a glass rod, and note the 
glasses carefully as to the length of time each sample 
keeps its colour. 

The above tests are excellent ones, and practi- 
cally a safeguard to any paper-maker in buying 
ultramarines. 



SCRAPS OF CHEMISTRY. 61 

SCRAPS OF CHEMISTRY 

Connected with the Manufacture of Paper. 

In these days of progress it is absolutely neces- 
sary for the papermaker to have some knowledge of 
chemistry. It solves for him many problems, and 
points out the cause of many difficulties with which 
he has to contend, and their various remedies. 

ALUM. 

The alum of commerce forms an important item 
in the manufacture of paper. Impure alum should 
at all times be rejected, especially if iron be present 
in it. Considerable difficulty is experienced at times 
by the papermaker in producing a uniform colour 
throughout a given quantity of paper; variations 
occur, which, if properly investigated, will in many 
cases be found attributable to the alum. Alum in- 
tended for the beating-engine should be perfectly 
pure, and ought to be weighed with accuracy, and 
dissolved in a known quantity of water. This ought 
to be tested at frequent intervals as to its strength, 
which ought to be kept as uniform as possible. A 
good system of ensuring a uniform supply of alum 
to the engine is to fix a tabular statement in a con- 
venient situation, so that the beaterman can com- 
mand a view of it at all times. For example : the 
beaterman is ordered to put in a given quantity of 
alum at 5 ; by condensation of steam it only stands 
4 : the table should acquaint him at a glance how 
much additional alum he is to use, All he requires 



62 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

to do is to test the alum for every engine he fur- 
nishes, which occupies very little time, and repays 
him a hundredfold in the saving of trouble in strik- 
ing the colour. This will be best exemplified in the 
manufacture of blue papers. The slightest variation 
in the alum varies the colour; hence arises the 
necessity of great care, in order to produce the de- 
sired shade. 

When alum contains iron in any considerable 
quantity, it should be rejected. The simplest method 
of testing its purity in that respect is to dissolve 
a small quantity in distilled water, and add by 
degrees a few drops of pure carbonate of soda to 
neutralize any free acid; next add a few drops 
of a solution of yellow prussiate. If any iron be 
present, it will assume a blue colour upon the addi- 
tion of the yellow prussiate solution. The inten- 
sity of the blue will indicate the quantity of iron 
present. Alum should be periodically tested in this 



ALUMINOUS CAKES. 

In many paper mills where low-classed printings 
and news are made, aluminous cakes are used in- 
stead of alum. Aluminous cakes are made from 
china clay, which is treated with strong sulphuric 
acid in suitable vessels. The acid has the effect of 
rendering the alumina soluble by dispelling the 
silicic acid and forming soluble sulphate of alumina. 
Hence aluminous cakes are valued according to 
their percentage of soluble alumina. The examina- 



SCEAPS OF CHEMISTRY. 63 

tion of aluminous cakes must be undertaken by a 
properly qualified analyst. A great fault in alu- 
minous cakes is the presence of free acid, and some- 
times dirt, in abundance. Both these deleterious 
agents should receive the careful attention of paper- 
makers. 



BLEACHING POWDER. 

This is a very important chemical, and one which 
enters largely into the cost of working a paper 
factory ; hence the necessity of the manager being 
in a position to know whether the article with 
which his employer is supplied is of the proper 
quality or not, as its value to him depends entirely 
upon the amount of chlorine it contains. 

To test bleaching powder as to the percentage of 
chlorine contained therein, proceed as follows : 

Take 100 grains of arsenious acid; dissolve them 
in four fluid ounces of hydrochloric acid, which pos- 
sibly will require a little heat ; the solution is then 
diluted with 6 ounces by measure of distilled water. 
The whole ought to measure exactly 10 ounces; 
consequently each ounce will contain 10 grains of 
arsenious acid. 

Take 100 grains of bleaching powder from various 
parts of the sample to be tested ; rub it in a mortar 
with a little water, then add as much water as will 
twice fill an ordinary graduated alkalimeter; allow 
the coarse grains to settle, then fill the alkalimeter, 
which is divided into 100 parts. Each part will con- 
tain half a grain of bleaching powder. Take one 



64 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKEE. 

ounce of the arsenious solution, and add to it a little 
sulphate of indigo, sufficient to render it of a distinct 
blue colour ; then into this pour slowly the bleach- 
ing liquor from the alkalimeter until the blue colour 
disappears, stirring continually during the operation. 
Note the number of graduations required to effect 
this change. 

Every 10 grains of the arsenioxts acid is equal to 
7 '2 grains of chlorine; so the quantity of bleaching 
liquor taken to decolour the indigo will contain that 
amount of chlorine. Suppose it has required 48 
graduations of the bleaching liquor to effect the 
change, this will be equal to 24 grains of bleaching 
powder : therefore 24 grains of bleaching powder 
will contain 7 '2 of chlorine; and if 24 contain 7*2, 
100 will contain 30. The sample will therefore 
contain 30 per cent, of chlorine. 

EXAMINATION OF SODA AS TO ITS CAUSTICITY. 

The value of soda to the paperrnaker depends 
upon the amount of caustic alkali which it contains. 
The admixed salts contained in soda consist of 
various sorts, and are of no value to the paper- 
maker. As the proportion of these salts varies very 
much, it is necessary to examine the soda periodi- 
cally, to ascertain the quantity of caustic alkali it 
contains. 

This can be done very easily, and by a re-agent 
which is applicable to both caustic soda and soda 
ash. Caustic soda differs from soda ash in that its 
alkali (pure soda) is in a free and uncombined state, 



SCRAPS OP CHEMISTRY. 65 

whilst the alkali of soda ash is united to an acid 
carbonic acid. This acid, however, is but a weak 
body, and the test, which serves to ally with the 
caustic alkali in caustic soda, is of sufficient strength 
to perform a similar function in the case of soda 
ash, by expelling the carbonic acid in the form of 
a gas. To effect this thoroughly, it is necessary to 
boil the solution of soda ash during the entire opera- 
tion, in order that the carbonic acid gas should not 
dissolve in the water or solution of soda ash. 

One equivalent of soda, represented by the figure 
31, is exactly neutralized by one equivalent of acid, 
40. The absolutely correct system of preparing the 
test re-agent above alluded to would be too technical 
an operation except for a properly qualified analyst. 
The following test, however, can be simply pre- 
pared : Add to half-a-gallon of distilled water about 
3 or 4 ounces (fluid) of pure sulphuric acid, and 
allow the mixture to get cool. Fill a " Winchester 
quart " bottle with this test acid, keeping the stopper 
close, and putting the acid in a place where the 
temperature is even and not liable to rise above 60. 
Next weigh out carefully 25 grains of pure anhy- 
drous carbonate of soda, and dissolve them in about 
one half an evaporating basinful of distilled water. 
The basin can hold, say about 1 pint. Set this over 
a spirit lamp or Bunsen burner to boil, having a 
good long glass rod in the basin, and having also 
added 5 or 6 drops of litmus. Meanwhile fill an 
alkalimeter with your test acid. Mohr's alkalimeter 
and clip, fitted also with a float, are the best things 
to use, and can be had of any chemical-instrument 



66 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

maker. The alkalimeter will contain 1000 grains 
of the test acid. When the solution of pure soda 
is boiling, add the acid cautiously, for fear of the 
effervescence causing overflow and loss. Add gra- 
dually until the litmus shows signs of reddening. 
Allow the solution to boil briskly now, and add the 
acid drop by drop until the litmus is of a purple 
tint. Note now whether this purple tint is stable 
after boiling, and if so, dot down the number of 
grains on the alkalimeter corresponding with the 
float-line ; then add one or two drops more acid 
until the soda solution turns a permanent red, and 
dot down this number also. 

Now, supposing the test acid denotes 800 as the 
first figure, and 810 as the figure when the soda 
turned red : take the mean, 805. Then 25. grains 
of pure carbonate of soda are equivalent to 805 
grains of acid liquor, and of course vice versd. The 
following calculation will give the strength of the 
test liquor : 

Garb. Soda. Pure Soda. Carb. Soda. Pure Soda. 
53 : 31 : : 25 : 14'56 

Therefore 805 grains of the test acid are equivalent 
to 14-56 of pure alkali. This experiment must be 
made three times to prove the accuracy of the test 
liquor, as everything depends upon the latter being 
perfectly true, seeing that it has to do duty in every 
future case of testing. 

Having found the above correct, the "Win- 
chester " is duly labelled, and 25 grains of each 
sample of soda ash are taken and boiled, and tested 



SCRAPS OP CHEMISTRY. 67 

exactly in the same manner. Suppose a sample of 
25 grains requires 705 grains of test acid, the 
following is the calculation : 

Test Acid. Alkali. Test Acid. Alkali. 

805 : 14-56 : : 705 : 1275 
then 12-75 X 4= 51 % alkali (say). 

This test is very accurate, provided the test acid is 
not too strong, and is added cautiously so as not to 
produce violent effervescence. 

In examining caustic soda the above test acid is 
used, but the sample of caustic is dissolved in cold 
water, and then examined in the same way. It is, 
however, better to take a piece of caustic and weigh 
it at once, and not endeavour to obtain any exact 
weight. Caustic is so deliquescent, that before it is 
possible to weigh out any exact given weight, the 
soda would probably absorb a large amount of water 
from the air. Weigh a piece about the size of a 
filbert, and, when the result is obtained, the following 
calculation will give the exact percentage : 

Weight Amount of Percentage of 

of : alikali : 100 : alkali 

sample absorbed . in sample. 



RULES TO BE OBSERVED IN THE EXAMINATION 
OF SODA. 

All the vessels and glasses must be scrupulously 
clean. 

The water used must be distilled. 



68 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

The operator must take great care to read correctly 
the volume of the test acid used. Nothing facilitates 
this so well as a Mohr's float. 

The tincture or solution of litmus must be kept 
in a well-stoppered narrow-necked bottle, and fre- 
quently in a dark cupboard. No alkali must be 
added to it on any account, as it will corrupt the 
result. Should the solution decompose or turn 
brown, one drop of weak ammonia may be added, 
but it is better to make some fresh solution. 



COLOURED TEST PAPERS. 

The most efficient test papers are litmus and 
turmeric ; they surpass liquid tests in delicacy and 
general application. 



LITMUS TEST PAPER. 

To prepare litmus paper, rub good litmus with a 
little hot water in a mortar, and pour the mixture 
into an evaporating basin; add water until the 
proportion is half-a-pint of water to one ounce of 
litmus ; cover up so as to keep warm for an hour, 
after which the liquid must be filtered, and fresh 
hot water poured on the residue. This is to be 
boiled, covered up as before, and allowed to stand. 
The operation is to be repeated a second time, and, 
if much colour comes, a third time. 



COLOURED TEST PAPERS. 69 

The first solution is to be kept separate from the 
second and third, which may be mixed together. 
The first solution will not require evaporation, but 
the others may be so far reduced in quantity, that 
when a piece of blotting or filtering paper is dipped 
into them and dried, they will impart to it a blue 
colour of sufficient intensity for use. 

The paper is then to be dipped in the solution. 
The paper blotting will suit very well should 
always be unsized, of good colour, and moderate 
thickness, say from 15 to 20 Ib. demy, and cut into 
pieces of a convenient size for dipping. Particular 
care should be taken to use paper as free as possible 
from earthy matter, and especially from carbonate 
of lime. Sized papers produce a finer tint on the 
surface, but are not so delicate as a test. 

Pour the litmus solution into a plate, and draw 
the slips of paper through it in such a manner that 
the fluid will come in contact with both sides ; allow 
it to drip, then hang them across two thread lines 
to dry. 

The tint ought to be a distinct blue, and may be 
tested as to its delicacy by touching the paper with 
a very dilute acid, observing whether the red colour 
produced is vivid or not. It should, when dry, be 
tied up into bundles, and preserved from the air and 
light. A wide-necked glass-stoppered bottle is best 
suited for this purpose. Put in the test papers, 
and paste round the sides of the bottle a piece of 
dark paper to exclude the light, as both air and 
light tend to destroy the colour and efficacy of the 
test paper. 



70 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

TURMERIC TEST PAPER. 

This paper is prepared in a manner similar to 
litmus paper. A hot infusion of finely-crushed 
turmeric is to be made by boiling one ounce of 
turmeric in 12 ounces of .water for half-an-hour ; 
strain through a fine cloth or silk bag, and leave the 
fluid to settle for a few minutes. The liquid should 
be of such strength that paper dipped into it and 
then dried should be of a fine yellow colour. The 
paper should be of the same quality in every respect 
as for litmus paper. No particular care is neces- 
sary in drying, as with litmus paper; but both papers 
should be prepared where acid and alkaline fumes 
cannot come in contact with them, as they injure 
the colour of both. 



USE OF THE TEST PAPERS. 

In using the .test papers with a fluid suspected to 
contain free acid or alkali, or to find if one of them 
predominates, all that is necessary is to moisten 
them with the liquid and observe the. change. If 
the fluid be acid, the blue colour of the litmus paper 
will change immediately to red; if alkaline, the 
yellow colour of the turmeric paper will change to 
brown. The moistening may be effected by dipping 
a glass rod into the liquid to be tested, and then 
touching the test paper. 

These tests must be made by daylight, if a minute 
estimate of the change is necessary, as artificial 



BLOTTING PAPER. 71 

light will not enable you to note the delicacy of the 
action of acid or alkali when a small portion is 
present. 



BLOTTING PAPER. 

This is a paper which, to bring it to a high 
standard of perfection, requires a greater amount of 
care and experience in its manufacture than is 
generally supposed. Every one who uses the article 
knows that its value consists in its absorbing 
qualities ; and that depends as much in the mode of 
preparation as in the material from which it is 
made. 

In selecting materials for blotting of a high class, 
cotton rags of the weakest and tenderest description 
procurable should be chosen. Boil them with 4 Ibs. 
of caustic soda to the cwt that is, if you have no 
facilities for boiling them with lime alone. 

When furnished in the breaking - engine, wash 
thoroughly before letting down the roll ; when 
thoroughly washed, reduce them to half-stuff, and as 
soon as possible empty into the poacher, or convey 
to the poacher as the case may be, and bleach with 
great care. When up to the desired colour, empty 
into the drainer, and drain immediately. It may be 
mentioned that the breaker-plate ought to be sharp 
when starting to blottings. 

The beater roll and plate should also be in good 
order, and the stuff beaten off smartly, not to exceed 
one hour and a half in the engine. For pink 



72 THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER. 

blottings furnish two thirds of white cottons and one 
third of turkey reds if they can be got ; if not, dye 
with cochineal to the desired shade, empty down to 
the machine before starting, and see that the vacuum 
pumps are in good condition. Remove the weights 
from the couch roll, and, if there are lifting screws, 
raise the top couch roll a little. Now take the 
shake belt off, as the shake will not be required. 
Press light with the first press, and have the top roll 
of the second press covered with an ordinary jacket 
similar to a couch roll jacket. Dry hard, and pass 
through one calender with the weights off, and the 
roll as light as possible, just enough to smooth 
slightly. In this way the author has made blotting 
which was considered a good article. 



EXPERIMENT MADE WITH MECHANICAL 
WOOD PULP, 

PRODUCED BY ONE OF VOLTER's MACHINES. 

One cubic sachen* of the wood of the aspen, which 
had been in the mill yard exposed to the sun for 12 
weeks, weighing 9340 Ibs., produced 5384 Ibs. dry 
pulp fit for manufacturing into paper, and 70 Ibs. 
waste unfit for paper. 

* Russian measure = 1 cubic fathom. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



JAS. KENYON & SON, 

P11EY MILLS, 

BURY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

FELTS 



FOR 



PAPERMAKERS. 



COUCH ROLL COVERS. 



WET AND DRY FELTS 

OF ALL KIXDS. 



Agents in United States : 

MOREY & CO. . . . BOSTON. 

S. G. TRAIN, BOSTON. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



PATENT BELTING, 



MANUFACTURED BY 



Jmtcasfc f atent getting 

AND HOSE CO., 
WIRE-WORKS MILLS, 

Strangeways, MANCHESTER 



This Belting is NOT affected by HEAT, MOISTURE, 
or ACIDS, is impervious to Hot or Cold Water or Steam, 
It is specially adapted for 

PAPER MILLS, 

where it is more durable than any other class of Belting 
manufactured. 

For MAIN DRIVING unsurpassed. 



Belts supplied for any Power. 

Price Lists and particulars on application, 



iv ADVERTISEMENTS. 



VIENNA TJNIVERSAL EXHIBITION, 1873. 





MEDAL FOR PROGRESS, 



JAMES BERTRAM 
& SON, 

ENGINEERS, 

LEITH WALK FOUNDRY, 

EDINBURGH!. 

(ESTABLISHED 1845.) 

Manufacturers of every description of 

PAPERMAKI1T& 

MACHINERY. 

Send for particulars of Wood's New Patent Strainer 
Suction Apparatus. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



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ADVERTISEMENTS. 



GEORGE CHRISTIE, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

PAPER MACHINE 

WIRES > 

OF 

GREAT STRENGTH AID DURABILITY, 

SPECIALLY SUITED FOR 

WIDE MACHINES 

Running at a High Speed. 

WIRES WOVEN UP TO 132 INCHES 
IN WIDTH. 



BRASS AND COPPER. WASHING WIRES OF 

ALL MESHES A\'D ANV WIDTH. 

EXTRA STRONG BACKING WIRES, RAG WIRE, 

DUSTER WIRE, ASD FINE SIEVES, 

DANDY ROLLS, &c. 



LADTWELL ST. WIRE-WORKS, 

QLA.SQOW. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ESTABLISHED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF 
FAFER1CAEEBS' TOOLS, 



A.D. 1736. 



WM, MAM & SONS, 

ATTERCLIFFE & CLIFTON STEEL WORKS, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

011 ara mtir 

Of every description, in all qualities of Double Shear, Cast, German, 
aud Bessemer Steel, of Warranted Temper and Tenacity 

LOMITUIOAL and CIRCULAR CUTTERS, 

ROPE AND RAG CHOPPERS, 

STRAW AND REAM KNIVES AND DOCTOR BLADES 

TO ANY PATTERN. 
BENCH, CROSS-CUT, AND RAG KNIVES 

OF SPECIAL TEMPER AND QUALITY. 



COMPOSITION YELLOW METAL ROLL BARS, PLATES, 

AND DOCTOR BLADES, 

Knotter Frames and Eates, Machine Wires and Felts supplied, 
of Superior Quality. 

EVERY DESCRIPTION OF STEEL 

for Smiths' and Mechanics' purposes. 
FILES, SAWS, TOOLS, &c. 

The only Medal awarded for Papermakers' Tools at the. 
Exhibition of all Natioiis, 1851. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



EENEY WATSON & SON, 

GENERAL MECHANICIANS. 

MAKERS OF 

STRAINER PLATES. 

Sole Makers of F. Norton Idler's 
NEW PATENT 

FLAT STRAINER. 



High Bridge Works, Newcastle -on-Tyne. 

HALL, DUNBAR & GO,, 

St. Ninian's Oil and Colour Works, 
LEITH, 

GIVE SPECIAL ATTENTION TO ALL KINDS OF 

PAPERMAKERS' COLOURS, 

Finest assortments of 
ULTBAMARINES, ANILINE COLOURS, PASTE BLACK 

and BLUE, OCHRES, BEDS, &c. &c. 

Bichromate and Frussiate of Potash, Sulphate of Copper, 

Sugars of Lead, Copperas, and all other Chemicals 

used in Paper Manufacture. 

MACHINERY OILS. ANTI-FROTH OIL. 

White and Bed Leads, Paints, Colours and Cements of all descriptions. 
Export Orders carefully attended to. 






UNIVT TTY OT 




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